2. Mapping of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Sustainability Tools – Working Paper 10

Premature failure of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure and poor service levels experienced by end users has resulted in an increasing emphasis on sustainability amongst development partners in recent years. Partly as a response to these challenges, a number of organisations have invested in and developed tools to help understand and improve services. Recognizing the need to promote and disseminate knowledge and good practice about the ‘how to’ of improving WASH sustainability, the Triple-S project 1 , managed by IRC, has undertaken a number of activities aimed at making such information and tools more accessible. This report contains the findings of a mapping of tools currently in use, as well as the outcomes of a survey looking into demand: in short assessing the current state of the market for sustainability tools and identifying the gaps. (Link)


Schweitzer, R.; Grayson, C.; Lockwood, H. 2014. Mapping of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Sustainability Tools – Working Paper 10. Aguaconsult, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Triple-s. 43 p.

3. Priority for One WASH National Programme – Focus of Recent Multi-Stakeholder Forum in Ethiopia

The Multi-Stakeholder Forum – popularly know as the MSF – is the key annual WASH sector event in Ethiopia. At the end of 2015, the One WASH National Program was again in the spotlight. IRC contributes to the One WASH National Programme through projects related to improving monitoring and knowledge management, and promoting the testing and uptake of innovations in WASH services delivery such as Community Managed Projects, and Self-supply Acceleration. IRC staff made presentations at the forum on government-led sector monitoring, sustainability checks, and engagement of the private sector. Work with the Millennium Water Alliance to support the Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy in Self-supply was also presented. (Link)


Butterworth, J. 2016. Priority for One WASH National Programme – Focus of Recent Multi-Stakeholder Forum in Ethiopia. IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. Web publication [Accessed in January, 2017].

4. Sanitation and Water for All (SWA): Preparing for the Future – SWA Progress Review, Final Report

Since its inception in 2009, the Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) Partnership has established itself as an important global brand for universal access to safe water and adequate sanitation. As it moves into a more mature phase of its development, SWA now needs to ensure that its structure and systems are fit for purpose, and that it is well-positioned to play a role in the post-2015 development agenda. This progress review aims to assist SWA with this transition process by providing recommendations for how it can best achieve its overall mission going forwards.  In order to do this the review team has explored SWA’s efficiency, effectiveness and impact in relation to three key areas: vision and purpose, strategy and governance arrangements. (Link)


Caplan, K.; Stott, L. 2014. Sanitation and Water for All (SWA): Preparing for the Future – SWA Progress Review, Final Report. UNICEF. 74 p.

5. One WASH National Program Resource Library

The poor sustainability of rural water services is well-recognized. Project-based, one-off and stand-alone implementation of water systems should be replaced with sustainable, large-scale approaches that actualize the philosophy of decentralized service delivery. One such an approach is the Community Managed Project (CMP) approach: it decentralizes service delivery by making communities responsible for the planning, implementation and maintenance of new water schemes, whilst district authorities provide capacity building and external support. The CMP approach is one of the four service delivery models for the development and use of rural WASH infrastructure in Ethiopia. Effectively it is an implementation modality which helps communities realise their WASH projects. This new library folder contains information and updates regarding the One WASH National Program (OWNP). (Link)


Community Managed Project (CMP); Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia; Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland; Ramboll Finland Oy; IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. 2017. One WASH National Program Resource Library. Web Page [Accessed in January, 2017].

6. Guidelines for Assessing the Enabling Environment Conditions for Large Scale, Effective and Sustainable Handwashing with Soap Projects

The purpose of these guidelines is to provide guidance to programmatic staff in the water supply and sanitation (WSS), health, and other sectors on how to carry out an assessment of the enabling environment for large-scale, effective, and sustainable hand washing programming. In early 2007, the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) – The World Bank started preparations to implement the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded Scaling up Hand Washing Behavior Change Project. The project tests whether innovative promotional approaches can generate large-scale, effective, and sustained increases in hand washing with soap at critical times among the poor and vulnerable in Peru, Senegal, Tanzania, and Vietnam. As part of the preparatory work, the project carried out assessments of the enabling environment for large-scale handwashing programming in each of the project countries. These guidelines present the background to the study, conceptual framework, methodology, and tools used to carry out the assessments. The project team sees these guidelines as a work in progress rather than a definitive framework and approach to understanding or assessing a countries enabling environment for large-scale and sustainable effective hand washing with soap program. (Link)


Cogswell, L.; Jensen, L. 2008. Guidelines for Assessing the Enabling Environment Conditions for Large Scale, Effective and Sustainable Handwashing with Soap Projects. Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) – The World Bank, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 45 p.

7. The WASH Performance Index Report

The Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Performance Index is a comparison of country performance in realizing universal WASH. The WASH Performance Index assesses performance in the following components: water access, water equity, sanitation access, and sanitation equity. The top five performing countries in the 2015 WASH Performance Index rankings are El Salvador, Niger, Egypt, Maldives, and Pakistan. The bottom five performers are the Dominican Republic, Gambia, Ghana, Samoa, and Timor-Leste. Progress toward equity in sanitation is significantly associated with governance indicators including control of corruption, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, and rule of law. These results suggest the enabling environment for WASH contributes to progress in sanitation equity. (Link)


Cronk, R.; Luh, J.; Mason Meier, B.; Bartram, J. 2015. The WASH Performance Index Report. University of North Carolina (UNC) Gillings School of Global Public Health Water Institute, Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. Web Publication [Accessed in January, 2017].

8. Influencing The Post-2015 Development Agenda

This toolkit is for civil society and other stakeholder organisations, coalitions and individuals that wish to influence the post-2015 development agenda, including the design and implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The toolkit supports advocacy activities at the national, regional and international levels. It does not assume a given level of  experience in either the post-2015 development agenda or in advocacy activities. Whether the interest if to follow each section and step in turn as a newcomer to the agenda, or only consult those new or relevant in order to support a more established programme, it is hoped it will prove useful to all. (Link)


Cutter, A.; Fenn, I.; Seath, F. 2015. Influencing The Post-2015 Development Agenda – Advocacy Toolkit. Sustainable Development 2015 (SD2015) Programme. Stakeholder Forum, CIVICUS, UN DESA, International Forum of National NGO Platforms (IFP/FIP). 68 p.

9. Monitoring for Learning and Developing Capacities in the WASH Sector

The water sector faces immense challenges, which are characterized by complex interactions between the social and ecological systems. Improving the linkages between sector-wide monitoring, learning and capacity development is of pivotal importance for coping with this complexity. For deciding where to invest, how to sustain and improve water and sanitation services and for understanding which policies and strategies work, both reliable data and critical joint reflection are crucial.  The demand for continuous learning and adaptive management based on sound monitoring data can be stimulated by incentives and supportive institutional settings. The supply – the mechanisms, tools and capacities for monitoring – must also be strengthened, especially the capacity to use monitoring data to take action. Learning-oriented monitoring processes can help identify capacity gaps, while the process of joint analysis, reflection and sharing lessons has the potential to build capacities. Commitment of stakeholders throughout the sector to do things better and differently is a critical element towards building a learning and adaptive sector. (Link)


Wells, C. S.; Lieshout, R.; Uytewaal, E. 2013. Monitoring for Learning and Developing Capacities in the WASH Sector. Water Policy 15: 206–225.

10. Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning: CLUES – Complete Guidelines for Decision-Makers with 30 Tools

This document is a further development of the Household-Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) provisional guidelines for decision-makers. Intensive piloting and evaluation of the household-centred approach took place between 2006 and 2010 in Africa, Asia and Latin America, in 7 different urban and peri-urban sites. Eawag-Sandec in partnership with UN-HABITAT and WSSCC has published complete guidelines for Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning (CLUES). This updated set of planning guidelines is based on the lessons learned from piloting the HCES approach. The name change from HCES to CLUES highlights the importance of broad community involvement (beyond the household level) in the planning and decision-making processes. Although the name changed, the main characteristics stay the same: a multi-sector and multi-actor approach accounting for water supply, sanitation, solid waste management and storm drainage in urban areas and emphasizing the participation of all stakeholders from an early stage in the planning process. (Link)


Lüthi, C.; Morel, A.; Tilley, E.; Ulrich, L. 2011. Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning: CLUES – Complete Guidelines for Decision-Makers with 30 Tools. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag-Sandec), Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). 102 p.

11. The Hygiene Improvement Framework: A Comprehensive Approach for Preventing Childhood Diarrhea – Joint Publication 8

This paper is a progress report on the state of the struggle against diarrhea and a rallying cry for a redoubled emphasis on prevention. Specifically, it: describes the incidence and impact of diarrhea on children, families, and household economics; examines the achievements and limitations of efforts to fight diarrhea to date (e.g., oral re-hydration and improving resistance); establishes the case for a renewed emphasis on prevention through hygiene improvement; presents the Hygiene Improvement Framework, a comprehensive, three-pronged approach to preventing diarrhea at its source; presents cases of successful hygiene improvement programs from the field; and, explains how to integrate diarrhea prevention efforts into ongoing health and development programs. (Link)


Environmental Health Project (EHP); UNICEF/Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES); USAID; Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) – The World Bank; Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC).  2004. The Hygiene Improvement Framework: A Comprehensive Approach for Preventing Childhood Diarrhea – Joint Publication 8. 37 p.