58. Enabling Environment End Line Assessment: Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, India, Scaling Up Rural Sanitation – Water and Sanitation Program Working Paper

This Working Paper is one in a series of knowledge products designed to showcase project findings, assessments, and lessons learned through WSP’s Scaling Up Rural Sanitation initiatives. It is conceived as a work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) has been implementing the Scaling Up Rural Sanitation initiative since 2007. One of the central objectives of the program is to improve sanitation at a scale sufficient to meet the 2015 sanitation MDG targets in Indonesia, Tanzania, and the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh (HP) and Madhya Pradesh (MP). This end line assessment found that political support and priority were central to the success of Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) and Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) programs in HP. While the reasons for the development of this political support are complex, it seems likely that the early successes provided by a combination of progressive state sanitation policies and exceptional leadership in Mandi District were sufficient to demonstrate that new approaches worked and that rapid sanitation improvements were possible. In addition, there was some convergence between the aims of TSC, Himachali cultural mores, and a growing environmental movement, which made sanitation improvement politically viable and attractive to leaders. (Link)


Robinson, A. 2012. Enabling Environment End Line Assessment: Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, India, Scaling Up Rural Sanitation – Water and Sanitation Program Working Paper. Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) – The World Bank, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 92 p.

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