131. The Missing Link in Sanitation Service Delivery: A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities, Targeting the Urban Poor and Improving Services in Small Towns, Water and Sanitation Program – Research Brief

Globally, the great majority of urban dwellers, especially poor people, rely for their sanitation on non-sewered systems that generate a mix of solid and liquid wastes generally termed “faecal sludge.” In poor and rapidly expanding cities, faecal sludge management (FSM) represents a growing challenge, generating significant negative public health and environmental risks. Without proper management, faecal sludge is often allowed to accumulate in poorly designed pits, is discharged into storm drains and open water, or is dumped into waterways, wasteland, and unsanitary dumping sites. This study seeks to assess the extent of this issue, and the major constraints that need to be overcome to improve FSM. A desk study of 12 cities was undertaken as a first step toward analyzing FSM in a variety of cities representing various regions, sizes, types, and levels of service delivery. Key findings relate to FSM data, how it is seen by policymakers, and technical and institutional issues requiring resolution. (Link)


Blackett, I.; Hawkins, P.; Heymans, C. 2014. The Missing Link in Sanitation Service Delivery: A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities,  Targeting the Urban Poor and Improving Services in Small Towns, Water and Sanitation Program – Research Brief. Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) – The World Bank. 8 p.

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